By Bar-Giora Goldberg
· In-depth assurance of contemporary electronic implementations of frequency synthesis architectures
· a variety of layout examples drawn from genuine engineering projects
· The accompanying CD comprises electronic frequency synthesis layout instruments and an digital model of the book
Digital frequency synthesis is utilized in glossy instant and communications applied sciences similar to radar, mobile telephony, satellite tv for pc communications, digital imaging, and spectroscopy. this is often booklet is a entire evaluation of electronic frequency synthesis concept and functions, with a specific emphasis at the most modern techniques utilizing fractional-N phase-locked loop expertise. The layout instruments within the accompany CD permit readers to paintings in the course of the examples during this ebook for a pragmatic simulation of exact layout utilizing electronic frequency synthesis.
· In-depth insurance of recent electronic implementations of frequency synthesis architectures
· Numerous layout examples drawn from genuine engineering projects
· The accompanying CD contains electronic frequency synthesis layout instruments and an digital model of the publication
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Extra info for Digital frequency synthesis demystified. DDS and fractional-N PLLs
Since the total power is the same, the overall jitter will be the same. Frequency Synthesizer System Analysis Figure 2-3 47 Phase noise with linear and log offset frequency. For example, in the graph shown in Fig. 08 o rms π (2-21) 48 Chapter Two Sometimes this measurement is taken directly from a spectrum analyzer reading; then few corrections have to be taken into account. , a resolution bandwidth of 100 Hz is 20 dB Hz). Therefore the measurement should be taken (in the plot, at 1 kHz from the carrier) as L(fm) ϭ Ϫ(peak Ϫ Pmeasure ϩ res) ϭ Ϫ(75 ϩ 20) ϭ Ϫ95 dBC/Hz (2-22) where res is resolution.
If the Frequency Synthesizer System Analysis 41 Figure 2-1 Spurious signals in decibels after multiplying or dividing. The distance from the carrier does not change. product of N2 and er2 is sufficient (and this is a relative number), this additional spurious signal will show at Ϯ2(2 Ϫ 1) from the carrier, and so on. The reciprocal effect occurs upon division. If in the multiplier Eq. (2-2) we put 1/N instead of N, then the spur of the output is improved by 20 log N dB. This is used in the FS again and again to improve performance.
If the LSB is changed, it takes this bit 232 Ϫ 14 clock ticks to propagate up the accumulator before it has an effect on the output! These peculiarities do not pose a real Introduction to Frequency Synthesis 35 problem, but have to be understood. If we continue with this example, it will take 218 clocks, say, at 100 MHz, to impress the effect of the LSB on the output. 025 Hz. 025-Hz frequency? As this demonstrates, the diagonal relation between the value of the frequency change and the delay it causes actually creates no practical problem.