By Robert Stuart Yoder
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Additional resources for Deviance and Inequality in Japan: Japanese Youth and Foreign Migrants
Class ecology sets the surroundings for the passing on of class culture. Furthermore, parental socialisation differs by social class. From birth, a child comes into contact with relatives, friends of the family and neighbours and develops their own friendships most of whom share in the same class culture. Dress, demeanour, music, mannerisms, leisure activities, topics of conversation, reading materials and so on all reflect on class culture and become integral to a child’s identity and behaviour.
One of the major proposals put forward by the Council was that the ‘eternal, unchanging traditions’ of Japan be given greater emphasis, that the mythic dimensions of Japanese nationalism be restored, and that a tightly controlled form of moral education be implemented (Horio, 1988: 366). [I]n the end, the nationalistic programme was accomplished in 1989; the order to hoist Hinomaru [Japan’s national flag] and sing Kimigayo [Japan’s national anthem] at all school ceremonies. Although this had to some extent been practiced previously, the 1989 policy ‘guideline’ was accompanied with the comment that teachers who resisted this policy would be disciplined.
Teacher violence has been reported to occur at many secondary schools, with teachers physically punishing students such as hitting, slapping or kicking them (Yoder, 1986, pp 155-6, 190, 193-4; Okano and Tsuchiya, 1999, pp 208-9; Yoneyama, 1999, pp 91-117; Letendre, 2000, p 107; Foljanty-Jost and Metzler, 2003, p 261;Yoder, 2004, pp 53, 84). Teacher violence is unpredictable: students are not sure of what kind of behaviour will result in physical punishment. Wearing the wrong-coloured socks, using an unauthorised pencil or a certain physical appearance can result in a teacher striking a student (Yoneyama, 1999, p 98; Yoder, 2004, p 83).