Read e-book online Development in Infancy: An Introduction, Fourth Edition PDF

By Marc H. Bornstein, Michael E. Lamb

Improvement in Infancy: An advent, Fourth version (Development in Infancy)

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One model describes a homotypic stability of the same underlying aspect of development. , productive vocabulary size) at Time 1 is related to performance on the identical behavior “A” at Time 2. Another model describes heterotypic stability as expressed in physically different but conceptually similar dimensions. , symbolic play) at either Time 1 or Time 2. Heterotypic associations may be concurrent or lagged. Models of heterotypic association typically postulate that a shared component “C” in the child underlies the association between behaviors “A” and “B”.

Sameroff and Chandler (1975) recognized that inherent characteristics are shaped by experience and vice versa, and that a constant process of mutual influence between heredity and experience continues throughout infancy, and indeed the lifespan. 1C portrays this transaction between constitution and environment through time. This was a very important advance, for it opened up the probability of epigenesis, the hypothesis that new phenomena not present in the original fertilized egg can emerge over the course of development through the interaction of preexisting elements with environmental influences.

Until the 1930s, the brain of the newborn was believed to be so immature that researchers doubted whether the cortex functioned at all until well into postnatal life. Since the cortex is the part of the brain responsible for neural coordination and integrating information, scientists questioned whether young infants were capable of any psychologically interesting processes or performance. Few people would defend this notion today, but none would question the relative immaturity of the newborn’s brain.

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