By Julie Laity
Taking a world viewpoint, this ebook offers a concise assessment of drylands, together with their actual, organic, temporal, and human elements.
* Examines the actual platforms taking place in desolate tract environments, together with weather, hydrology, earlier and current lakes, weathering, hillslopes, geomorphic surfaces, water as a geomorphic agent, and aeolian procedures
* bargains an obtainable creation to the actual, organic, temporal, and human elements of drylands
* Investigates the character, environmental standards, and crucial geomorphic roles of crops and animals during this tense organic atmosphere
* Highlights the impression of human inhabitants development on weather, desertification, water assets, and mud hurricane task
* comprises an exam of surface/atmosphere interactions and the impression of ENSO events.
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Extra resources for Deserts and Desert Environments (Environmental Systems and Global Change Series)
It is a semidesert that becomes increasingly arid from north to south and from west to east. On the border of the Caspian Sea, the world’s largest lake, the annual precipitation is 156–177 mm (Walter & Box 1983a). In winter, the Siberian high-pressure system causes 29 very cold temperatures, from −30°C on the coast to −40°C inland. Summers bring hot weather (maxima up to 40°C) and dust storms that cause extensive damage to cultivated land. At times during the Pleistocene, the lowland area was under water, with a connection through to the Sea of Azov.
Further south, in the mid-latitudes, the prevailing wind flow is westerly, and the Andes produce a rainshadow to the east where the Patagonian and Monte Deserts are located. The western margin of South America has a long history of aridity. Hartley et al. (2005) suggest that the Atacama is the oldest extant desert on the planet, with sedimentary successions indicating that an arid to semiarid climate prevailed from the late Jurassic (150 Ma) to the present. Extensive gravelly fluvial deposits (the Atacama Gravels) are incised, resulting in prominent late Miocene- to Pliocene-age fans and terraces.
Southwesterly winds associated with the summer monsoon represent one of Earth’s strongest and most-sustained winds, with gale-force winds common. These winds produce dust storms along the northeast coast and Gulf of Aden (Warner 2004). Sand dunes are generally limited to coastal areas. 3 Southern Africa: arid Madagascar The southwestern coastal strip (≈50 km wide) of the island of Madagascar is semiarid (Fig. 5), with a mean annual rainfall of approximately 350 mm, and no pronounced wet or dry seasons.