Download e-book for iPad: Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases in the Central Nervous by Nicholas J. Brandon, Anthony R. West

By Nicholas J. Brandon, Anthony R. West

This ebook reports advances in knowing phosphodiesterases in the crucial anxious method and their therapeutic functions. a number professional authors from either academia and describe those, then specialise in the components of maximum clinical and scientific curiosity to supply extra distinct assurance. healing and drug discovery functions are coated for diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia, erectile disorder, and spinal wire accidents. there's additionally a bankruptcy on drug discovery instruments corresponding to in vitro assays and X-ray buildings for medicinal chemistry experiences.

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Extra resources for Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases in the Central Nervous System: From Biology to Drug Discovery

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J. Comp. , 467:566–580. 34 PHOSPHODIESTERASES AND CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE SIGNALING IN THE CNS 119. , and de Vente, J. (2004) Species differences in the localization of cGMP-producing and NOresponsive elements in the mouse and rat hippocampus using cGMP immunocytochemistry. Eur. J. , 19:2155–2168. 120. , and de Vente, J. (2007) Expression of the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases 2 and 9 in normal and Alzheimer’s disease human brains. Eur. J. , 25:3332–3338. 121. F. (1993) A cyclic GMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase gene is highly expressed in the limbic system of the rat brain.

And Augusti-Tocco, G. (1993) Characterization of 30:50 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activities of mouse neuroblastoma N18TG2 cells. , 324:76–80. 47. , and Mayanagi, K. (2002) Three-dimensional structure of non-activated cGMP phosphodiesterase 6 and comparison of its image with those of activated forms. J. Struct. , 139:27–38. 48. , and Schultz, P. (2001) Molecular organization of bovine rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase 6. J. Mol. , 310:781–791. 49. , and Conti, M. (1999) Activation of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 by phosphorylation.

PDE7 and PDE8. PDE7 and PDE8 families consist of two genes each. All are widely expressed throughout the brain and encode for cAMP-specific enzymes with a substrate affinity that is one order of magnitude higher compared to PDE4. This has led to the hypothesis that PDE7 and PDE8 function inherently differently from PDE4 and control microdomains with low cAMP levels or act under basal conditions. mRNA levels for PDE7A are highest in olfactory bulb and tubercle, hippocampus, and cerebellum, whereas PDE7B is highly expressed in striatum and hippocampus [85,86,101,102,179,180].

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