By Martin O'Brien
Criminology: the main techniques is an authoritative and finished learn consultant and reference source that would take you thru the entire strategies, methods, concerns and associations critical to the learn of crime in modern society. themes coated during this effortless to take advantage of A-Z advisor contain: policing, sentencing and the justice process sorts of crime, together with company crime, cybercrime, intercourse and hate crimes feminist, marxist and cultural techniques to criminology terrorism, country crime, warfare crimes and human rights social concerns reminiscent of anti-social behaviour, family violence and pornography felony psychology and deviance totally cross-referenced, with broad feedback for extra interpreting and in-depth research of the themes mentioned, this is often an important reference advisor for college kids of Criminology in any respect degrees.
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Additional resources for Criminology: the Key Concepts (Routledge Key Guides)
Thus some sixty years after Edwin Sutherland’s call for criminologists to examine the ‘crimes of the powerful’, corporate crime remains a relatively neglected topic within the discipline. See also: environmental crime; green criminology; Marxist criminology; social harm; state, the; state crime; white-collar crime Further reading: Slapper and Tombs (1999); Snider (2000); Sutherland (1947); Whyte (2003, 2004) CRIME AND DEVIANCE The terms crime and deviance are often used in tandem, or even interchangeably, in criminological discussion.
From a right-wing perspective, the likes of Charles Murray have argued that the lower social classes (or underclass) have a criminal culture that encourages crime and deviance. In contrast, Marxist and critical criminologists point to the ways in which the everyday activities of the socially disadvantaged are subject to legal regulation and intensive policing at the behest of more powerful and dominant social groups. In this way, the high level of recorded crime amongst the poor and marginalised reflects the biases of the state and criminal justice system, which almost invariably work in the interests of the privileged.
Since the reality of crime is visible in all of these different social sites, then, it is argued, the task or object of criminology lies less in supplying rational and effective ways of responding to lawbreaking activities and more in enabling the expansion of new understandings/meanings of and new societal relationships with crime and justice. To achieve these aims, constitutive criminologists propose to develop ‘replacement discourses’ – ‘alternative visions’ that invoke ‘alternative realities’ that may ultimately coalesce into emergent ‘new discursive orders’ (Henry and Milanovic, 1996: 186, 209).