By Geoffrey R. Skoll (auth.)
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Extra resources for Contemporary Criminology and Criminal Justice Theory: Evaluating Justice Systems in Capitalist Societies
Mysticism uses knowledge gained directly, immediately. The knowledge is gained in ways not mediated by the senses. The difference between science and art is not the same kind of difference as that between science and religion. Whereas the difference between science and religion lies in the ways of gaining knowledge, the difference between science and art pertains to differences in the kind of knowledge. Art, in the sense I am using it, should be understood broadly. It includes music, painting, literature, drama, sculpture, dance, and so on.
Scientiﬁc methods depend not on faith but on human reason, the “logico” part, and observation, the empirical part. Empiricism limits our source of knowledge to that which we gain through our senses. Although scientiﬁc observation may use instruments that aid our observation, for example telescopes and microscopes, eventually all empirical knowledge comes through one or more of our senses. In contrast, certain kinds of religious knowledge, especially revelatory knowledge, may depend on mystical ways of learning things.
Arthur Diamond (1971) said that in the post-exilic period of the Second Temple the priestly order became more involved in the secular administration of justice. Diamond argued that the two kinds of justice, secular and religious, were separate: “. . in the Hebrew mind law was one thing and toráh was another, and while the toráh was the province of the priest, the law and its administration belonged to the civil rulers” (138). Diamond’s position confuses the pre-exilic with the post-exilic. The Torah was the basis for law and justice, whether administered by priests HISTORY OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE THEORY 29 or secular administrators under Persian tutelage, and the Great Assembly made political, legal, and religious decisions.