By A. J. Shatkin, A. K. Banerjee, G. W. Both (auth.), Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat, Robert R. Wagner (eds.)
The time turns out ripe for a serious compendium of that section of the organic universe we name viruses. Virology, as a technological know-how, having handed just recently via its descriptive section of naming and num bering, has most likely reached that level at which really few new really new-viruses may be stumbled on. caused through the highbrow probes and methods of molecular biology, genetics, biochemical cytology, and high-resolution microscopy and spectroscopy, the sphere has skilled a real info explosion. Few severe makes an attempt were made to chronicle those occasions. This complete sequence, with a purpose to contain a few 6000 pages in a complete of approximately 22 volumes, represents a dedication by means of a wide staff of energetic investigators to research, digest, and expostulate at the nice mass of information on the subject of viruses, a lot of that's now amorphous and disjointed, and scattered all through a large literature. during this method, we are hoping to put the total box in standpoint, and to improve a useful reference and sourcebook for researchers and scholars in any respect degrees. This sequence is designed as a continuum that may be entered at any place, yet which additionally presents a logical development of constructing evidence and built-in concepts.
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Extra info for Comprehensive Virology 10: Regulation and Genetics Viral Gene Expression and Integration
In picornavirus-infected cells, host protein synthesis is markedly inhibited and, in the presence of actinomycin, can be almost completely 25 Translation of Animal Virus mRNAs in Vitro abolished without affecting virus replication (Shatkin, 1968). Consequently, a spectrum of newly formed virus-specific polypeptides can be readily detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel analysis of radioisotope-labeled infected cells. Both noncapsid viral proteins (NCVP) and virion structural proteins (VP) ranging in size from about 7K to as high as 200K daltons have been identified.
1972a). This value is consistent with the translation of the complete viral RNA chain, but the predominant products were smaller polypeptides. Somewhat similar results were obtained with extracts prepared from EMC virus-infected cells (Esteban and Kerr, 1974). A striking finding was the increased amount of the three primary cleavage products among the polypeptides synthesized in vitro by extracts of infected L cells, although further cleavage of the capsid precursor polypeptide to the four structural proteins did not occur in vitro.
However, it remains to be determined whether the larger mRNAs (1) are processed during protein synthesis, (2) contain long untranslated regions, or (3) are polycistronic. At least for the two cases cited (27 S and 19 S mRNAs), results obtained with mRNAs selected by hybridization to specific fragments of viral DNA make it unlikely that two polypeptide products are coded for by a single, polycistronic adenovirus mRNA. , 1975). Viral mRNA isolated at late times in the infectious cycle from polysomes of adenovirus type 2 infected KB cells was hybridized to the separated genome fragments, recovered from the DNA, and translated in vitro.