Competencies, Higher Education and Career in Japan and the - download pdf or read online

By Jim Allen, Yuki Inenaga, Rolf van der Velden, Keiichi Yoshimoto

This e-book investigates how social and cultural elements have an effect on the schooling, education and profession improvement of graduates of upper schooling in Japan and the Netherlands. regardless of their diverse ancient paths, either international locations are actually topic to the typical strain of globalization. for that reason, the better schooling quarter in either nations is turning into extra common and on hand to a bigger inhabitants, and the economic system and society have gotten more and more knowledge-intensive. the purpose of this e-book is to discover how Dutch and eastern graduates select and improve their careers in connection with the above-mentioned demanding situations. it truly is according to a distinct info set along with surveys held between graduates three and eight years after leaving larger education.

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Regulations on the content and organisation of courses were abolished and institutions received greater autonomy to establish new programmes to meet employment needs. The new steering approach also aimed to introduce more market forces into higher education. Closer relationships and new partnerships were envisaged between institutions and industry in order to ensure that the students would acquire the skills necessary for the world of work. Although the encouragement of a market orientation persisted over the years, it has not precluded governmental interference at the macro-level.

As the report states: ‘what for one person is initial education, can be taken by somebody else in the framework of a post-initial course’ (Ministry of Education, 2002; see also De Grip, 2000). Especially in the vocational streams the distinction between initial and post-initial education depends on the phase of the career of the individual student. There are no terminal qualifications for the labour market, as each step provides an opportunity for later progression to a higher degree course. Although these proposals primarily concern the HBO institutions, the concept of lifelong learning is increasingly important for the university sector, too.

In the 1990s, the regulations on the establishment of universities were eased and government control over the educational content was greatly reduced. There is a move away from standard criteria, standard mechanisms for admission, and guidelines on study hours, allowing institutions to formulate their own educational ideas and objectives. 1. The policy shift in the Netherlands aims to increase the market orientation of institutions and to increase the role of stakeholders in higher education. Government has a facilitating role in establishing arrangements and networks between higher education and employment organisations both at the national and the regional level.

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