By M A Connolly; World Health Organization
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Additional resources for Communicable disease control in emergencies : a field manual
Ideally, the well will be sealed and a lifting device installed. g. in a soakaway pit or vegetable garden). Standing water around a water point will become contaminated, attract animals, make the apron muddy and provide a breeding site for mosquitoes. It can also seep back into the water source and contaminate it. Maintenance Each water point must have a caretaker to look after it, keep it clean and make sure it is not abused (women are usually the most appropriate caretakers; in the long term they must be trained in maintenance skills).
Mothers should be encouraged to dig small holes for their babies’ faeces and to cover them with soil afterwards. The digging of latrine pits must begin as soon as possible. A complete camp coverage of one latrine per 50 people should be the first target; then one per four families; and finally one per family. Funding or space constraints may hinder reaching the highest ratios. Often the best ratio achieved in an emergency situation is one latrine per four families. Appropriate anal cleansing facilities must be provided.
The emergency requirement guideline is 20 litres per person per day. This allows for cooking, laundry, bathing and activities essential to preventing the transmission of water-borne diseases. 2. 1 * 35 Guidelines for assessing the volume of water required The assessment of the volume of water required must take into account daily population requirements and the effects of climate on the water source. The effects on water requirements of a change in population size also need to be estimated. A factor of 10–15% should be added to the total daily requirement of a camp in order to provide for public institutions.