By Caleb Ellicott Finch
Clusterin is a multifunctional protein which used to be independently found via greater than ten varied study teams in the Nineteen Eighties. New roles of clusterin in mind capabilities have come to llight that are summarized the following through the researchers concerned. fresh discoveries comprise a different lipoprotein particle containing clusterin and apoE secreted by way of astrocytes, and the facility of clusterin to advertise neurotoxic actions of the amyloid beta peptide, but additionally to be neuroprotective. additionally incorporated is contemporary information regarding clusterin and Alzheimer's ailment. In all, it is a accomplished and up to date evaluate of clusterin within the mind.
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Extra info for Clusterin in Normal Brain Functions and During Neurodegeneration
These receptors are members of a single family and include the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, the very low-density (VLDL) receptor, the apoER2 receptor, the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP), and the gp330/megalin receptor. 79 As described above, these structures also contain high levels of clusterin mRNA in the adult rat. With the obvious exception of the ependymal epithelia, it is not known whether the two transcripts colocalize in the same cell populations. 79 These results are consistent with those of two other studies in rats using in situ hybridization in combination with ICC for GFAP and either ED1 or OX42, two different markers for microglia.
Masliah E, Mallory M, Ge N et al. Neurodegeneration in the central nervous system of apoE-deficient mice. Exp Neurol 1995; 136:107-22. 69. Stone DJ, Rozovsky I, Morgan TE et al. Astrocytes and microglia respond to estrogen with increased apoE mRNA in vivo and in vitro. Exp Neurol 1997; 143:313-8. 70. Mahley RW. Apolipoprotein E: Cholesterol transport protein with expanding role in cell biology. Science 1988; 240:622-30. Clusterin and Apolipoprotein E Gene Expression in the Adult Brain 33 71. Beffert U, Danik M, Krzywkowski P et al.
There is only limited data available on the distribution of clusterin mRNA in the human brain. 17 The distribution pattern was similar to what was seen in the rat cortex except for the presence of larger grain clusters in the former. The significance of this clustering is unknown but may be related to aging. More recently, Pasinetti et al38 have examined brains, used as controls for Alzheimer’s disease, in the age range of 76 to 85 years and found similar results for the temporal cortex. These authors have also examined the hippocampal formation of a non-AD case with multi-infarct dementia.