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Evaluating Scour at Bridges, Federal Highway Administration Publication FHWA-IP-90-017 - Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18, November 1995 14. The Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains Using Risk Analysis, Federal Highway Administration - Hydraulic Engineering Circular No.

Changing either discharge or tailwater depth may cause a culvert to switch from one type of flow control to the other. Headwater vs Backwater Headwater is defined as the depth of the upstream water surface measured from the invert at the culvert entrance. The invert is the lowest point inside the culvert at a particular cross-section. Culvert backwater is the difference between the headwater elevation and the normal water surface elevation at the culvert entrance. The normal water surface elevation is generally determined at the roadway centerline, and must be projected upstream to the location at which the headwater was measured.

There are, however, several factors that must be accommodated when this action is taken. • • • The flow line of the flood channel must be set above the ordinary high water elevation. The flood channel must extend far enough upstream and downstream of the bridge to establish the desired flow regime through the affected reach. Stabilization of the flood channel to prevent erosion and scour should be considered. 5 Hydraulic Analysis of Culverts The FHWA HY-8 computer program shall be used for the analysis and design of culverts.

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