By Rebecca M. Jordan-Young
Male and female brains are diverse, because of hormones coursing during the mind ahead of start. That's taught as truth in psychology textbooks, educational journals, and bestselling books. And those hardwired variations clarify every thing from sexual orientation to gender id, to why there aren't extra ladies physicists or extra stay-at-home dads.
In this compelling publication, Rebecca Jordan-Young takes at the facts that intercourse transformations are hardwired into the mind. studying nearly all released learn that helps the claims of "human mind association theory," Jordan-Young finds how frequently those reports fail the factors of technological know-how. no matter if cautious researchers indicate the boundaries in their personal experiences, different researchers and reporters can simply forget about them simply because mind association conception simply sounds so correct. but when a chain of methodological weaknesses, questionable assumptions, inconsistent definitions, and large gaps among ambiguous findings and grand conclusions have amassed over the years, then technological know-how isn't medical at all.
Elegantly written, this publication argues passionately that the research of gender changes merits way more rigorous, biologically refined technological know-how. "The proof for hormonal intercourse differentiation of the human mind larger resembles a hodge-podge pile than a high-quality structure...Once we've got cleared the rubble, we will be able to start to construct more moderen, extra medical tales approximately human development."
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Additional resources for Brain Storm: The Flaws in the Science of Sex Differences
This article gave the ﬁrst indication of the sorts of human traits and behaviors that Money and other scientists would examine in the coming years as evidence that people have been either masculinized or feminized by hormone exposures in utero. Although a great deal of brain organization research later focused either on broader personality or psychological traits, or conversely, more narrowly on sexual orientation, this passage is a good reminder that brain organization theory is, at its heart, about masculinity and femininity.
Kessler’s groundbreaking analysis showed how ideas about gender and sexuality are called upon by medical doctors and psychologists, both to determine the male or female status of bodily structures and to reshape those structures so that they can be seen as ﬁtting with “normal” male versus female bodies. For example, Kessler explores the centrality of the idea that “boys urinate standing up” in determining whether a phallic structure can, or cannot, count as male. She and, more recently, Katrina Karkazis (2008) have also demonstrated how doctors who conduct “feminizing” surgeries on intersex infants deploy a deﬁnition of “normal” female sexual function that is built around vaginal penetrability rather than around the capacity for sexual pleasure and orgasm.
Initial enthusiasm for the transplants was short-lived, as the “heterosexual testes” failed to stimulate heterosexual desire in the recipients (Sengoopta 1998; Oudshoorn 1994; Fausto-Sterling 2000). Steinach’s transplants did not work, but the idea that gay men had more “feminine” hormone proﬁles continued to be quite popular with scientists (for instance, Glass and Johnson 1944; Neustadt and Myerson 1940; Heller and Maddock 1947). Proponents of the hormonal inversion idea were again thwarted by the dismal failure of gay men to become heterosexual in response to testosterone injections, and by the gradual accretion of evidence that studies seeming to support a “feminine” hormone proﬁle among gay men were badly ﬂawed (Kinsey 1941; Meyer-Bahlburg 1977; Kenen 1997).