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Additional info for Biochemistry and Genetics: Pretest Self-Assessment and Review
The answer is c. (Murray, pp 452–467. Scriver, pp 3–45. Sack, pp 1–40. ) In a general sense, the mechanism of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells is similar to that found in prokaryotes; however, there are significant differences. Cycloheximide inhibits elongation of proteins in eukaryotes, while erythromycin causes the same effect in prokaryotes. Thus, one is an antibiotic beneficial to humans, while the other is a poison. Cytoplasmic ribosomes of eukaryotes are larger, sedimenting at 80S instead of 70S.
Sack, pp 1–40. ) Oncogenes are cancer-producing genes. They are closely related to normal cellular genes and are often tyrosine kinases, growth factors, or receptors for growth factors. The expression of oncogenes leads to the translation and eventual transcription of the protein product of the oncogene. Thus, template-directed RNA synthesis but not DNA synthesis occurs during the expression of oncogenes. In contrast, template-directed DNA synthesis rather than RNA synthesis occurs during the repair of thymine dimers, the polymerase chain reaction, the functioning of the replication fork, and the growth of RNA tumor viruses.
C. d. e. Chloroplast ribosomes Eukaryotic mitochondrial ribosomes Eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes Bacterial ribosomes Bacterial cytoplasm 69. Which of the following is required for certain types of eukaryotic protein synthesis but not for prokaryotic protein synthesis? a. b. c. d. e. qxd 11/14/01 10:37 AM Page 47 Gene Expression 47 70. An older man with severe emphysema is found to have decreased amounts and abnormal mobility of α1 antitrypsin (AAT) protein in his serum when analyzed by serum protein electrophoresis.