Download e-book for kindle: Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American by Richard J. Herrnstein, Charles Murray

By Richard J. Herrnstein, Charles Murray

The debatable booklet linking intelligence to type and race in glossy society, and what public coverage can do to mitigate socioeconomic adjustments in IQ, start price, crime, fertility, welfare, and poverty.

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Extra resources for Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life

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Medication was the answer to these needs” (132). That support was critical. Modern studies show a marked benefit in having nonmedical women attend births, whether as female friends offering support or in the form of doulas: doulas are paid to provide social, physical, and emotional support to birthing and postpartum women (see England and Horowitz). Doulas provide the constant “being with” support that neither nursing staff nor hospital-based midwives can typically provide. According to Pam England and Rob Horowitz, the presence of doulas leads to shorter labors and significantly reduces epidurals, augmentation with Pitocin, Cesarean births, and forceps births.

These beliefs circumscribe women’s childbirth choices. On the opposite end of the spectrum, those who accept a decline narrative, rejecting the dominant progress narrative, are likely to romanticize older knowledge, dismissing actual technological, pharmaceutical, or procedural progress. While the simpler historical narratives tend to be favored, we stand to benefit from more complex understandings. We might seek to avoid the Kuhn loss: for example, we know we are losing knowledge and techniques that midwives have employed for centuries to alleviate problems that today’s physicians, as Gawande notes, are trained to solve only by performing C-sections, a major surgery.

Framed this way, the story of puerperal fever appears as a strange anomaly in the larger tale of medical progress. The implication is that as time passes, new and better knowledge, practices, and practitioners simply and irrevocably replace or improve upon older (and in this model inferior) knowledges, practices, and practitioners. That notion of medical progress carries continuing challenges and dangers, as rhetorician Joseph Dumit illustrates. Dumit relays the story of his wife’s ectopic pregnancy, a dangerously misimplanted embryo that went undiagnosed for weeks despite numerous doctor visits and ultrasounds interpreted by multiple physicians.

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