By Efthimios Kaxiras
This graduate textbook designed for college students in physics, chemistry and fabrics technological know-how presents a latest remedy of the speculation of solids facing the physics of electron and phonon states in crystals and the way they make certain the constitution and homes of solids. the 1st a part of the publication offers with electrons and atoms in a crystal, and the second one half extends the dialogue to defects in crystals and to constructions with out crystalline symmetry. there are various routines all through and appendices to supply the required heritage.
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Extra resources for Atomic and Electronic Structure of Solids
These structures have been nicknamed after Buckminster Fuller, an American scientist and practical inventor of the early 20th century, who designed architectural domes based on pentagons and hexagons; the nicknames are buckminsterfullerene or bucky-ball for C60 , bucky-onions, and bucky-tubes. The physics of these structures will be discussed in detail in chapter 13. 10. Illustration of covalent bonding in diamond. Top panel: representation of the sp 3 linear combinations of s and p atomic orbitals appropriate for the diamond structure, as deﬁned in Eq.
11. The structure of solid P is represented by this kind of atomic arrangement. In this structure, the covalent bonds are arranged in puckered hexagons which form planes, and the planes are stacked on top of each other to form the solid. 87 Å, almost a factor of 2 larger. The structures of As, Sb and Bi follow the same general pattern with three-fold bonded atoms, but in those solids there exist additional covalent bonds between the planes of puckered atoms so that the structure is not clearly planar as is the case for P.
Interestingly, in both cases each atom ﬁnds itself at the center of a tetrahedron with exactly four nearest neighbors. Since the nearest neighbors are exactly the same, these two types of lattices differ only in the relative positions of second (or farther) neighbors. It should be evident that the combination of two close-packed lattices cannot produce another close-packed lattice. Consequently, the diamond, zincblende and wurtzite lattices are encountered in covalent or ionic structures in which four-fold coordination is preferred.