By H. E. Boyer, Howard E. Boyer
This atlas is split into 22 sections plus an appendix. Sections 1, 2, and three include technical discussions of varied points of the relevant subject. For these now not accustomed to the idea that of creep, its dimension, and the translation of attempt effects, this introductory fabric should be very beneficial. The appendix, positioned on the finish of the e-book, is a word list of phrases appropriate to creep. the rest sections are: Iron-Base Superalloys; Nickel-Base Superalloys; Cobalt-Base Superalloys; Superalloy Comparisons; Refractory Metals; Refractory Metals Comparisons; ACI Casting Alloys; Austenitic Stainless Steels; Ferri tic Stainless Steels; Martensitic Stainless Steels; Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels; Higher-Nickel Austenitic Alloys; Stainless Steels Comparisons; Nickel-Base Alloys; solid Irons; Carbon and Alloy Steels; Copper and Copper Alloys; Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys; Titanium and Titanium Alloys.
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desk of Contents
1. common creation to Creep
2. attempt tools and kit
three. Manipulation and Interpretation of knowledge
four. Iron-Base Superalloys
five. Nickel-Base Superalloys
6. Cobalt-Base Superalloys
7. Superalloy Comparisons
eight. Refractory Metals
nine. Refractory Metals Comparisons
10. ACl Casting Alloys
eleven. Austenitic Stainless Steels
12. Ferritic Stainless Steels
thirteen. Martensitic Stainless Steels
14. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
15. Higher-Nickel Austenitic Alloys
sixteen. Stainless Steels Comparisons
17. Nickel-Base Alloys
18. forged Irons
19. Carbon and Alloy Steels
20. Copper and Copper Alloys
21. Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys
22. Titanium and Titanium Alloys
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Additional info for Atlas of Creep and Stress-Rupture Curves
3(d) at each of these values to the master curve and thence to the ordinate to arrive at approximate stresses of 1 IO, 78, and 46 ksi. These values are shown as dashed extensions on the curves in Fig. 3(a). Obviously, this is a very simple way of arriving at necessary design inputs without having to wait for eleven years of testing time to elapse. But we must consider the assumptions that are made and ask how sure we can be that these answers are correct. First consider Fig. 2, in which common forms of linear parameters are shown.
6 at about 318 HV. For other alloys, this crossover may occur at rupture ductilities as low as 3OYoor as high as 25%. Alloys with lower rupture ductilities are more notch sensitive. INTERRUPTED TESTS Power failure or some other problem may make it necessary to interrupt a test, DATA PRESENTATION Readings of strain should be made frequently enough to produce a well-defined curve. This necessitates more frequent readings during the early part of the test than during later stages. The elastic portion of the stress-strain curve can be obtained from the step-loading curve or estimated by measurement of the instantaneous contraction when the load is removed at the end of the test, if the specimen has not broken.
Thick castings of AC1 CF-8M to distort from circular to oval, or even to nearly flat, as creep progressed in tests whose rupture life at 595 to 870 “C (I 100 to 1600 “F) ranged between a few hours and 40,000 h. ) or by the nonuniform deformation of the gage section. Measured creep tended to be more variable with the smaller specimens. For materials in which grain-boundary material and that in the body of the grains differ markedly in either composition or strength, the effect of number and orientation of grains in the cross section would be expected to result in greater scatter than was noted in the above example.