Antigenic Variation - download pdf or read online

By Alister G. Craig, Artur Scherf

The subject of antigenic edition is critical in either biology and medication. it really is of large curiosity, because it describes the process(es) wherein microorganisms 'shift shape', via genetic rearrangement or in a different way. In scientific phrases, this has an enormous impression at the infectious disorder technique, because the immune process has nice trouble in maintaining with this change, and therefore taking away the infectious agent. Antigenic edition is an enormous technique in which microbes dodge the immune reaction, and persist within the body.The huge scope of the ebook appeals to all these operating within the box of infectious ailment, immunology of an infection, pathogenesis, molecular biology and in addition to evolutionary biologists. subject matters coated contain not just bacterial species, and viruses equivalent to influenza, HIV, Rotavirus, but additionally eukaryotic parasites - some of the most interesting teams of organisms showing this behaviour. accomplished insurance of antigenic version from viruses to parasitesDiscussions dedicated to molecular mechanisms of host evasionDetailed descriptions of host/pathogen interactions

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8, 457–462. , Chan, T. and van der Woude, M. (2002) J. Bacteriol. 184, 3338–3347. , Van der Heide, H. G. , Ter Avest, A. R. and Mooi, F. R. (1990) EMBO J. 9, 2803–2809. 15 2 H I V VA R I AT I O N – A QUESTION OF S I G N A L -T O - N O I S E SIMON WAIN-HOBSON Is the spectacular genetic variability exhibited by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the AIDS virus, important from the point of view of pathology? Although my neighbour Claude, who works at the Assembl´ee Nationale in Paris, knows little about HIV, he ‘knows’ that the virus mutates like crazy and outruns the immune system.

Sala, M. and Wain-Hobson, S. (2000) J. Mol. Evol. 51, 12–20. Sanchez, C. , Dopazo, J. and Enjuanes, L. (1992) Virology 190, 92–105. Schierup, M. H. and Hein, J. (2000) Genetics 156, 879–891. Schmitz, J. , Kuroda, M. , Sasseville, V. , Simon, M. , Lifton, M. , Seallon, B. , Forman, M. , Montefiori, D. , Rieber, E. , Letvin, N. L. and Reimann, K. A. (1999) Science 283, 857–860. Schnittman, S. , Lane, H. , Justement, J. , Baseler, M. and Fauci, A. S. (1990) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 87, 6058–6062.

1996). The second approach involves the rate of fixation of mutations. , 1995). The first two hypervariable regions of the envelope protein are probably the most variable regions of the entire genome. While the rate is variable the upper limit is close to 1% nucleotide changes per year. , 2001), meaning that the fixation rate approximates to the product of the point mutation rate and the annual number of consecutive cycles of replication. As the point mutation rate is known (approx. 5 × 10–5 per base per round) (Mansky and Temin, 1995), the remaining unknown, the number of cycles per year, turns out to be around 400.

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