New PDF release: Animal Models of Neurological Disorders

By Kathryn C. Todd and Roger F. Bufterworfh

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A parallel process that contributes to the growth of the brain and especially to its functional maturation is the elaboration and refinement of connections between neuronal groups. Similar considerations apply to glial and other supporting cells. There is evidence for the presence of multipotential common glial progenitor cells in the white matter of the adult brains. Subcortical white matter progenitor cells produce primarily oligodendrocytes, whereas spinal cord progenitor cells produce an equal number of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes.

Most neurites become dendrites, which receive information coming from other nerve cells. The contact between the axon of a neuron and the dendrites of the neuronal target is called a synapse. Synapses are the basis for transmission of information in the nervous system (Fig. 12). These are dynamic processes that persist throughout life and are critical for mechanisms of learning and repair in the nervous system. The growth cone of the axon continuously changes shape and direction. Growth cone motility depends on extensive rearrangements of the cytoskeleton.

The central cavity of the neural tube becomes the aqueduct of Sylvius (midbrain) and the fourth ventricle (pons and medulla). The cerebellum originates from the isthmus at the junction of the midbrain and hindbrain and the rhombic lip (metencephalon). 22). General Organization of the Telencephalon The telencephalon is from the alar plate and gives rises to the cerebral hemispheres. The ganglionic eminence gives rise to the striatum and globus pallidus and to the interneurons of the cerebral cortex.

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