By Diane Larsen-Freeman
Figuring out how humans study and fail to benefit moment and international languages is more and more regarded as a severe social and psycholinguistic factor. moment languages are extremely important to various teams of individuals, starting from refugees to school scholars dealing with international language specifications. This e-book offers a synthesis of empirical findings on moment and international language studying by way of childrens and adults, emphasising the layout and execution of acceptable research.
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Extra resources for An introduction to second language acquisition research
Of course, there are many other learner variables besides age which affect the acquisition process. We will deal with a number of these in Chapter 6. Even the term 'second language' is not as straightforward as it first seems, as sometimes it refers to a language which is not chronologically the second. SLA really has come to mean the acquisition of any language(s) other than one's native language. Thus, we have 'second' language acquisition studies dealing with the acquisition of third and fourth languages, and we even have 'second' language acquisition case studies of simultaneous bilingualism which in reality are studies of children engaged in learning two first languages.
The distinction we have chosen to exemplify is the one between longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. A longitudinal approach (often called a case study in the SLA held) typically involves observing the development of linguistic performance, usually the spontaneous speech of one subject, when the speech data are collected at periodic intervals over a span of time. In a cross-sectional approach, the linguistic performance of a larger number of subjects is studied, and the performance data are usually collected at only one session.
The influence of the native language on SLA). According to Van Dalen (in Cook 1965), 'Descriptive studies may classify, order and correlate data 62 seeking to describe relationships that are discoverable in phenomena themselves' (p. 39). Examples of focused descriptive studies in an SLA context which seek to classify data are those that use interaction analysis. In interaction analysis studies, researchers observe a language class using a data-collection device or instrument to focus and record their observations.