Read e-book online An introduction to immunotoxicology PDF

By Jacques Descotes

This article offers a concise and finished creation to key immunotoxicological matters for all these drawn to, yet without previous wisdom of, this sector of toxicology. the 1st part explores the future health outcomes of immunotoxicity, particularly the antagonistic results regarding chemically-induced immunosuppression and immunostimulation, allergy reactions and autoimmune ailments, with an outline of significant immunotoxicants. the second one half describes the most recent tools used to notice and assessment, preclinically and clinically, the unforeseen immunotoxic results of xenobiotics. traits in enforcing thoughts and up to date alterations to the regulatory elements also are thought of. The 3rd part examines attainable destiny advancements, together with In Vitro equipment, biomarkers of immunotixicity and danger review.

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Bacterial infections are preferentially due to staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis), streptococci (Streptococcus pneumoniae), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Nocardia, and Mycobacteria (Donnelly, 1995). L. monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that occurs in patients with a defect in cellular immunity. Meningitis is the most common complication, but bacteraemia, brain abscess, meningo-encephalitis, or pneumonia may also develop.

Other terms, such as immunorestoration or immune-enhancement, have also been commonly used, but these linguistic differences are more likely to reflect limitations in our current understanding of the potential for pharmacological immunomanipulation or immunostimulation than a scientifically established situation. Overall, the adverse consequences of immunostimulation on human health have been less extensively investigated than those of immunosuppression, because immunosuppression has been an issue of primary concern for immunotoxicologists during the past 20 years, but also because potent immunostimulating agents, such as the recombinant cytokines interferon‚ź£ and IL-2, were introduced into the clinical setting only recently.

Illustrative examples from the general medical practice include infants born with a severe immune defect, and cancer or AIDS patients, all of whom develop frequent, severe and potentially lethal infections (Rubin and Young, 1994). Similar examples can be found in the area of toxicology. Infectious complications have long been described in patients treated with long-term and/or high-dose corticosteroid therapy (Kass and Finland, 1953; Thomas, 1952), immunosuppressants or cytotoxic anticancer drugs (Davies, 1981).

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