Download PDF by Michael A. Arbib: Action to Language via the Mirror Neuron System

By Michael A. Arbib

Replicate neurons could carry the brain's key to social interplay - each one coding not just a selected motion or emotion but in addition the popularity of that motion or emotion in others. The reflect method speculation provides an evolutionary arrow to the tale - from the replicate procedure for hand activities, shared with monkeys and chimpanzees, to the uniquely human reflect method for language. during this obtainable 2006 quantity, specialists from baby improvement, desktop technological know-how, linguistics, neuroscience, primatology and robotics current and examine the reflect method and express how stories of motion and language can remove darkness from one another. themes mentioned within the fifteen chapters comprise: what do chimpanzees and people have in universal? Does the human power for language relaxation on mind mechanisms shared with different animals? How do human babies gather language? What might be discovered from imaging the human mind? How are signal- and spoken-language similar? Will robots discover ways to act and converse like people?

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This fits with the hypothesis that neurons learn to associate patterns of neural firing rather than being committed to learn specifically pigeonholed categories of data. Thus a potential mirror neuron is in no way committed to become a mirror neuron in the strict sense, even though it may be more likely to do so than otherwise. The observed communicative actions (with the effective executed action for different “mirror neurons” in parentheses) include lipsmacking (sucking and lip-smacking); lips protrusion (grasping with lips, lips protrusion, lip-smacking, grasping with mouth and chewing); tongue protrusion (reaching with tongue); teeth-chatter (grasping with mouth); and lips/tongue protrusion (grasping with The Mirror System Hypothesis 29 lips and reaching with tongue; grasping).

The Taı¨ chimpanzees crack hardershelled nuts with stone hammers and stone anvils. They live in a dense forest where suitable stones are hard to find. The stone anvils are stored in particular locations to which the chimpanzees continually return. To open soft-shelled nuts, chimpanzees use thick sticks as hand hammers, with wood anvils. The nut-cracking technique is not mastered until adulthood. Young chimpanzees first attempt to crack nuts at age 3 years, and require at least four years of practice before any benefits are obtained.

6, inspired by the comments of Hurford (2004), we distinguish the “neural representation of the signifier” (top row) from the “neural representation of the signified” (bottom row). The top row of the figure makes explicit the result of the progression (Arbib, 2002, 2005a) of mirror systems for:12 12 Barrett et al. (2005) usefully review evidence for differential localization of neuronal systems controlling limb praxis, speech and language, and emotional communication, and assert that such data justify rejection of an evolutionary relationship 34 Michael A.

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