By Harland G. Tompkins
A User's consultant to Ellipsometry will permit readers to maneuver past constrained turn-key functions of ellipsometers. as well as its entire discussions of the dimension of movie thickness and optical constants in movie, it additionally considers the trajectories of the ellipsometric parameters Del and Psi and the way adjustments in fabrics have an effect on parameters. This quantity additionally addresses using polysilicon, a fabric more often than not hired within the microelectronics undefined, and the consequences of substrate roughness. 3 appendices supply valuable references.
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Extra resources for A User's Guide to Ellipsometry
Tech. Note 479 (1969). S. Chandrasekhar, A. S. Vengurlekar, S. K. Roy, and V. T. Karulkar, J. Appl. , 63, 2072 (1988). 1 Inaccessible Substrates and Unknown Films In Chapter 3, we discussed the Del/Psi trajectories for various kinds of films. From that discussion, it might appear that one simply measures Del and Psi and then determines by inspection the value of the thickness. The Del/Psi trajectory can readily be calculated if the filmfree values of Del and Psi are known (and hence N3 = n3 - j k3) and if the index of refraction N2 of the film is known.
The fact that k is smaller causes the spiral to close more slowly. To further illustrate this, we hypothesize a material with an even smaller value of k, which is more characteristic of a semiconductor than a metal. 07°. Because k is much smaller, the spiral closes very slowly, with large maximum and minimum excursions. For even smaller values of k, the trajectory may pass through zero and eventually cover a large portion of the Del/Psi region. The limiting case, of course, is for k = 0 where the spiral never goes to the target value.
Particularly, oxidize so readily that the oxide-free surface only exists in a vacuum. Ellipsometry can be done inside a vacuum system, but it is often not practical to construct this type of setup in order to obtain the necessary information. In this chapter, we will discuss how one can obtain useful information when the film-free substrate is inaccessible for measurement. Several examples from the author's work will be pre sented. In this discussion, we use primarily ellipsometry, but we also use some other techniques for ancillary measurements.