By M. W. Service (auth.)
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Extra resources for A Guide to Medical Entomology
29 Pupae do not feed but spend most of their time at the water surface taking in air through the respiratory trumpets. Unlike the pupae of most other Diptera they are capable of active movements. If disturbed they alternately flex and extend the abdomen and this movement aided by their paddles enables them to swim up and down in the water in a jerky fashion. 15). As a consequence they remain submerged and rarely come to the water surface. In the tropics the pupal period in mosquitoes lasts only two to three days, but in cooler temperate regions pupal development may be extended over 9- I2 days or longer.
Other methods aim to select genes that cause large distortions in the sex ratio, so that excessive numbers of male mosquitoes are produced. Not only are males non-vectors, but introducing a distorted sex ratio gene into populations should lead to reductions in population size. Sterile-male release techniques involve the production and release into the field of male mosquitoes that are sterile. Sterilisation can be achieved in the laboratory by several methods, such as radiochemical irradiation, use of chemosterilants (for example apholate, hempa, tepa, metepa) or production of infertile hybrid males by crossing closely related species.
Ecological changes can also prevent mosquito breeding. For example, cutting down overhanging vegetation to increase sunlight on the water may prevent breeding by species that like shaded habitats, whereas planting vegetation near water may stop breeding by sun-loving species. Similarly, the removal of rooted or floating vegetation may result in reducing mosquito breeding, especially by species of Mansonia which require plants to get their oxygen requirements, on the other hand the presence of a dense coverage of vegetation can prevent breeding by species that prefer exposed water surfaces.