By Frederick E. Hoxie
"This is a crucial ebook. within the latter 19th century, assorted and influential parts in white the United States mixed forces to settle the 'Indian query' via assimilation. . . . the consequences have been the primarily treaty-breaking Dawes Act of 1887, comparable laws, and doubtful court docket judgements. Schoolteachers and missionaries have been dispatched to the reservations en masse. Eventual 'citizenship' with out practical rights used to be given local americans; the Indians misplaced two-thirds of reservation land because it had existed prior to the assimilationist crusade. . . . With perception and ability that pass way past craft, Hoxie has admirably outlined concerns and explanations, put economic/political/social interplay into cogent standpoint, introduced quite a few Anglo and Indian participants and corporations to existence, and set forth very important lessons."-Choice. "This major examine of Indian-white kin in the course of a fancy time in nationwide politics merits shut attention."-American Indian Quarterly. "Important and intellectually not easy . . . This quantity is going a long way to fill a wide hole within the heritage of usa Indian policy."-Journal of yank heritage. Frederick E. Hoxie is director of the D'Arcy McNickle heart for the heritage of the yank Indian on the Newberry Library. He coedited (with Joan Mark) E. Jane Gay's With the Nez Perc?s: Alice Fletcher within the box, 1889-92 (Nebraska 1981).
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Extra resources for A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920
Expansionists dwelled in every camp. 20 As they condemned the Indians for failing to “develop” their lands and called for more “civilization,” editors added that the nation had a special obligation to the tribes. “The sins committed by Americans upon Indians . . ” At the same time the editors made it clear that help for Native Americans did not require white Protestants to abandon their sense of racial superiority. 21 Whatever the motives of reformers like Thomas Tibbles and Helen Hunt Jackson, the campaign that began in 1879 did not threaten prevailing racial and cultural attitudes.
Powell’s version of social evolution the notion of culture stages, continuous progress, and the inevitable transformation of Indian life became dominant within the discipline. In short, he set the terms for informed discussions of Indian affairs in the 1880s. Powell’s other contribution was his direct inﬂuence on reformers and policy makers. The major was careful not to expose his new bureau to political controversy. He recognized that while powerful friends like Speaker of the House James Garﬁeld had created his ofﬁce, powerful enemies could easily destroy it.
I think I feel as you must have in the old abolition days,” wrote one such person to Thomas Wentworth Higginson a few days after she had heard Standing Bear. ”13 By mid-November it was clear that the tour was a triumph. Five hundred Bostonians representing the city’s business and political The Appeal of Assimilation 9 establishment attended a noon meeting at the Mercantile Exchange a few days before Thanksgiving. By a voice vote they approved a resolution calling for Indian citizenship, and they created an executive body to investigate the plight of the Poncas.