By A.J. Larner
While such a lot textbooks of neurology procedure the topic from both a symptomatic or a diagnostic viewpoint, this dictionary specializes in a few of the neurological indicators that could be elicited via history-taking and actual exam. greater than six hundred based and cross-referenced definitions are supplemented, the place applicable, with the neuroanatomical and neurophysiological foundation of every one signal. consequently the semiological worth of symptoms is elucidated in a method which makes an attempt to combine medical phenomenology with underlying neurobiology, therefore guiding anatomical and pathological prognosis and acceptable therapy. This e-book can be of curiosity to all scholars of neurology, undergraduate and postgraduate, in addition to more matured clinicians, together with common physicians and common practitioners, and participants of ancillary professions who take care of sufferers with neurological sickness.
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Extra info for A Dictionary of Neurological Signs: Clinical Neurosemiology
E. aphasias). They usually reflect damage in the left frontal operculum, but sparing Broca’s area. - 23 - Aphonia Apraxia Lecours AR, Lhermitte F. The “pure” form of the phonetic disintegration syndrome (pure anarthria): anatomo-clinical report of a single case. Brain and Language 1976; 3:88-113. Schiff HB, Alexander MP, Naeser MA, Galaburda AM. Aphemia: clinicalanatomic correlations. Archives of Neurology 1983; 40: 720-7 [Cross References: ANARTHRIA; APHASIA; DYSARTHRIA; DYSPROSODY; SPEECH APRAXIA] Aphonia Aphonia is loss of the sound of the voice, necessitating mouthing or whispering of words.
G. Kallman’s syndrome, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, a disorder of neuronal migration) or, much more commonly, acquired. Rhinological disease (allergic rhinitis, coryza) is by far the commonest cause; this may also account for the impaired sense of smell in smokers. Head trauma is the commonest neurological cause, due to shearing off of the olfactory fibres as they pass through the cribriform plate. Recovery is possible due to the capacity for neuronal and axonal regeneration within the olfactory pathways.
Clinical assessment of aphasia requires analysis of the following features, through listening to patient’s spontaneous speech as well as asking patient to read and repeat: FLUENCY: is output effortful, laboured, with agrammatism and dysprosody (nonfluent); or flowing, with paraphasias and neologisms (fluent)? COMPREHENSION: spared or impaired? REPETITION: preserved or impaired? NAMING: preserved or impaired? READING: alexia? WRITING: agraphia? These features allow definition of various types of aphasia (see Table and specific entries).