By Crina Anastasescu, Susana Mihaiu, Silviu Preda, Maria Zaharescu
This ebook offers rainy chemical sol-gel and hydrothermal equipment for 1D oxide nanostructure training. those tools symbolize an enticing path to multifunctional nanomaterials synthesis, as they're flexible, reasonably cheap and, hence, applicable for acquiring a variety of oxide fabrics with adapted morphology and houses. 3 particular oxides (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO) are mentioned intimately that allows you to illustrate the main of the sol-gel and hydrothermal practise of 1D oxide nanostructures. different oxides synthesized through this technique also are in short offered.
Throughout the ebook, the correlation among the tubular constitution and the physico-chemical homes of those fabrics is highlighted. 1D oxide nanostructures express fascinating optical and electric homes, because of their constrained morphology. moreover, a well-defined geometry will be linked to chemically energetic species. for instance, the natural SiO2 nanotubes provided a mild photocatalytic task, whereas the Pt-doped SiO2 tubular fabrics act as microreactors in catalytic reactions. when it comes to titania and titanate nanotubes, huge particular floor zone and pore quantity, ion-exchange skill, more advantageous mild absorption, and speedy electron-transport power have attracted major examine curiosity. The chemical and actual ameliorations (microwave assisted hydrothermal equipment) mentioned the following enhance the formation kinetics of the nanotubes. The ZnO nanorods/tubes have been ready as random debris or as huge components of small, orientated 1D ZnO nanostructures on numerous substrates. within the latter case a sol-gel layer is deposited at the substrate ahead of the hydrothermal instruction. utilizing applicable dopants, coatings of ZnO nanorods with managed electric habit will be obtained.
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Additional info for 1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods
171]. 5–13 Hydrothermal synthesis 200 C for 6 h 450 C for 3 h Sonochemical at 70–50 C 95 C for 10 h/ 20 h 200 C for 5 h 90 C, 30 min ZnO morphology Nanorods (pH ¼ 7), Flakes (pH ¼ 1) and flowers (pH ¼ 12) Rods References  Nanorod-based sphere-like superstructures  (a–c) Spherical nanoparticles   120 C, 17 h (d) Nanorods flower-like shape 60 C nanoparticles; 180–220 C nanorods; 260 C flower 3D flower-like 120 C for 24 h 450 C for 2 h 180 C for 3 h Dumbbell shaped Flower-like Nanorods  Supercritical conditions T ¼ 411 C P ¼ 305 bar Rods  60–260 C/16 h    When NH4OH was used as alkaline source, ZnO crystallized in a rod-like morphology highly orientated on a-axis.
Non-tubular nanofibers/nanolamellae were reported also in another paper . A ribbon-like structure with a width of 30–200 nm was obtained in hydrothermal conditions in the presence of 10 M NaOH at 200 C for 24 h. These nanoribbons were indexed as anatase . The role of Na atoms in the fabrication process was investigated also by Chen et al. . In their results, the TiNTs are formed exclusively in the presence of Na while nanorods/nanoplates and nanoparticles were obtained in the samples obtained with KOH and LiOH.
All three processes take place simultaneously, and each has a characteristic range of temperatures related to their particular phase transition. The similar thermal behavior in this temperature range, in which no specific thermal effects were noticed in the DTA/TGA curves (Fig. 6), led to the conclusion that all prepared nanotubes should have a similar thermal stability and do not undergone structural modifications. The XRD patterns of the samples thermally treated in the 100–400 C temperature range do not confirm this supposition for all samples.